What causes hives and the way harmful can they be? A nurse practitioner explains


Yearly, about 20% of People will get hives—these itchy, crimson bumps or welts that may seem after a day within the backyard, taking treatment, being bitten by a bug or for no obvious purpose in any respect. Patricia A. MacCulloch is a nurse practitioner and professor of nursing who teaches about hives, amongst many different issues. She presents some perception into this annoying situation that may generally be an indication of a life-threatening emergency.

What are hives and what causes them?

Hives are a time period used to explain a medical situation generally known as urticaria, a pores and skin dysfunction that happens when the physique’s immune system responds to an allergic menace.

Hives can happen at any age, and the looks of hives can fluctuate with pores and skin colour. You probably have brown pores and skin, hives are sometimes the identical colour as your pores and skin or barely darker or lighter than your pure pores and skin colour. Individuals who have mild complexions can have pink- and red-colored hives because of the allergic response. Hives can itch, burn and sting and infrequently really feel heat to the contact. Hives also can end in blanching, whereby urgent on the hive will trigger the discoloration to vanish after which return instantly when the stress is lifted. Hives could keep, unfold or emerge on one other a part of the pores and skin.

Hives can happen for a wide range of causes together with however not restricted to sure meals, medicines, vegetation, pollen, animal dander, insect bites and chemical substances discovered within the backyard like pesticides. It is also attainable for individuals to expertise hives associated to emotional stress, because of sporting tight clothes when exercising or because of sicknesses or an infection.

Why are hives bumpy and itchy?

Merriam-Webster defines a hive as “a spot swarming with exercise.” In my skilled nursing observe, I share this definition and analogy with my educating sufferers and college students. Hives are the physique’s immune system “swarming with exercise” whereas trying to handle an assault from an allergen, which is a substance that may set off an allergic response. Whether or not the allergen is encountered instantly on the pores and skin floor—as is the case with a latex allergy—or ingested within the type of a meals or treatment, the physique’s immune response contains the activation of histamines.

Histamines are chemical substances produced by the physique’s white blood cells that struggle allergens. Contact with an allergen provokes the immune system to disperse histamine into the blood. This may outcome within the enlargement of blood vessels close to the pores and skin’s floor, inflicting redness, swelling and itching. The physique’s histamine response is trying to dilute the offending allergen.

How lengthy do hives final?

Hives can happen and disappear inside a 24-hour interval or final for days to weeks, and so they could recur primarily based on future allergic publicity and immune response. Hives lasting greater than six weeks are thought of continual. Whereas hives are frequent, you will need to examine the causes and contemplate the related dangers.

In some situations, hives are an early symptom of a extra extreme immune response generally known as anaphylaxis, which is a medical emergency. Anaphylaxis is a doubtlessly life-threatening allergic response that ends in a fast but weak pulse, a major drop in blood stress and a tightening of the airway, affecting respiratory. Frequent immune system triggers related to hives and anaphylaxis embody meals akin to nuts, medicines like antibiotics and blood stress reducing brokers, insect venom from bees and or mosquitoes and allergic reactions from latex supplies—simply to call a number of.

If you happen to develop hives, you need to contact your main well being care supplier, who can collect a complete well being historical past and carry out a bodily examination. As soon as the allergic set off is recognized, you can also make efforts to cut back future publicity.

What are the principle therapies for hives?

Antihistamines are a sort of over-the-counter treatment that try to handle the signs of itching and delicate swelling. Antihistamines like loratadine (Claritin) or diphenhydramine (Benadryl) will be taken by mouth or utilized instantly on the pores and skin floor. A cool moist compress can present consolation and cut back swelling. Extra therapy could embody oral and topical steroids, a stronger anti-inflammatory agent to lower the physique’s inflammatory response and handle the allergic signs.

If you happen to or somebody is experiencing hives, you will need to have the signs mentioned with a well being care supplier to find out the trigger in order that future allergic response danger and damage will be diminished.

Acquired hives? Learn how to relieve them at house

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